Diseases of pond fish – Farming and farms
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Fish diseases are caused by many biological and abiotic factors environmental factors. These include viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi, helminths, crustaceans, toxic substances, disturbance of the hydrochemical regime and the other components of the environment.
Infectious fish diseases are caused by viruses, bacteria, algae and mushrooms. Parasitic diseases are caused by parasitic organisms: helminths, protozoa, crustaceans. There are many non-infectious fish diseases that arise as the result of disturbance of habitat. These include nutritional diseases caused by a defective or toxic feed, toxaemia, disturbance of the hydrochemical regime of the water body, temperature extremes, excessive content of gases, injuries, etc.
It should be noted that many diseases are caused due to poor immunity of fish due to a variety of stresses. Non-contagious and parasitic diseases of fish are often complicated by the development of pathogenic microflora.
The clinical picture of a disease usually has a certain specificity. However, in many cases, Klinicheskaya different diseases are very similar. Because freshwater fish live in hypoosmotic environment, any disorder of metabolism leads to the violation of water-salt metabolism: the fish appears exophthalmia, dropsy, separation of scales. To make a diagnosis based only on clinical signs in ihtiopatologice unacceptable. For example, ulcers on the body of the fish is not always the rubella. They can appear as a result of trauma during the harvest, the slaughter of the fish parasitic crustaceans, leeches, the bites of predators, etc., Such signs of rubella as inflammatory bowel disease, ascites, exophthalmia, is a separation of scales can also appear as and when coccidiosis enteritis, microsporidiosis, toxicosis, some alimentary diseases.
Fish can be a source of diseases of humans and warm-blooded animals. In addition to these common helminth infections, opisthorchiasis and diphyllobothriasis, fish sometimes becomes the cause of food poisoning and toxicoses of man.
The main route of spread of infectious and parasitic diseases of fish – uncontrolled transportation of disadvantaged households in healthy. Some diseases of fish, in particular, rubella of carp have natural focal character. This means that in certain regions of the country agents of the disease are contained in wild fish living in natural waters. To improve the farm, located in the area of natural foci of infection or infestation is almost impossible.
Consequently, the transportation of fish from the region is prosperous in the reservoir will likely lead to its contamination. The presence of veterinary certificate, unfortunately, is not always a guarantee that the fish is healthy. In recent years, the cases of the delivery of sick fish in ponds especially wealthy increased. The cheap importation of commercial fish or fish stocking material from a dysfunctional region often leads to economic collapse of the economy. This is especially dangerous for businesses involved in fishing and practicing frequent importation of fish from different regions of the country on the principle of “buy wherever is cheaper”.
Infectious fish diseases
Gill disease of uncertain etiology (JSNA) or Gill necrosis